Violent Video Games: Do They Lead to Aggressive Behavior or Not? | Video Games

Video games for children, teens and young adults bring in $10 billion a year in the United States. Certainly some of the games offer harmless entertainment and maybe even some educational value. But the games that seem to be the most eagerly anticipated, the games that major retailer Zany Brainy says “the industry is focusing on,” and the games that fly off the shelves as soon as they’re released are those rated “M” for mature and “AO” for adults only.To garner an “M” rating, the content is intended for people aged 17 and older, and may contain sexual themes and intense violence or language. An “AO”-rated game is suitable only for adults 18 and over, and may include graphic depictions of sex and/or violence.The popularity of the games is astounding. According to a 2004 report by the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center, a 2001 review found that 49 percent of the 70 top-selling video games contained serious violence. Out of all games, 41 percent required violence for the protagonists to achieve their goals. And in 17 percent of the games, violence was the primary focus of the game itself.The violence is often brutal and degrading to women. In the game “Duke Nukem,” for instance, a player can enter a room with naked women saying “Kill me,” while tied to posts. In the Grand Theft Auto series, one of the most popular and also most violent and controversial of the games, a player is rewarded if he has sex with a prostitute and then murders her (the most recent of the series, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, was the best-selling title in 2004).Whether or not these games contribute to violent “real-life” behavior among their primary users (pre-teen and teen boys) has spurred major controversy. And, as with most hot-button issues, there are strong proponents and opponents on either side.Yes, Video Games Cause ViolenceMuch attention was brought to video game violence after it was realized that the two teenagers behind the Columbine High School shootings played (and even created their own levels of) DOOM, one of the first “first-person shooter” video games (attesting to its popularity, a movie version of DOOM was just released on October 21).The most recent study on the topic, to be published in the January 2006 edition of Media Psychology, found that playing violent video games does indeed cause violent thought patterns in the brain.A team of international researchers observed 13 males, aged 18 to 26, for the study. It was found that, after playing a mature-rated game, 11 out of the 13 participants showed significant effects from the games.”There is a causal link between playing the first-person shooting game in our experiment and brain-activity pattern that are considered as characteristic for aggressive cognitions and affects,” said René Weber, assistant professor of communication and telecommunication at Michigan State University (MSU) and a researcher on the project. “There is a neurological link and there is a short-term causal relationship.”Violent video games frequently have been criticized for enhancing aggressive reactions such as aggressive cognitions, aggressive affects or aggressive behavior. On a neurobiological level we have shown the link exists,” he says.Previous studies have also found such links. Said psychologist Craig A. Anderson, Ph.D.:”Violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations. In the short run, playing a violent video game appears to affect aggression by priming aggressive thoughts. Longer-term effects are likely to be longer lasting as well, as the player learns and practices new aggression-related scripts that can become more and more accessible for use when real-life conflict situations arise.”Some researchers say that violent video games are worse than watching similarly violent TV programs or movies because the interactive nature of the game makes the player become involved and learn to identify with the aggressive game character.No, Video Games and Violence are Not RelatedOn the other side of the coin are those who argue that no such link exists. One recent study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign supports this case. After playing a violent video game called Asheron’s Call 2 (AC2) for an average of 56 hours in a month, no link between the game and real-world aggression was found in the 75 players (average age 28).Said lead author Dmitri Williams, “Players were not statistically different from the non-playing control group in their beliefs on aggression after playing the game than they were before playing. Nor was game play a predictor of aggressive behaviors. Compared with the control group, the players neither increased their argumentative behaviors after game play nor were significantly more likely to argue with their friends and partners.”Another study of 35 8- to 12-year olds, in which the children played a non-violent and a violent video game for 15 minutes each, found the game playing did not alter the children’s previous tendencies toward aggressiveness or empathy.Are the Game Ratings Enough?Just as controversial as the violence issue is whether or not the game ratings go far enough. While some contend that it’s up to parents to monitor the game ratings and their children’s exposure to them, a study found that many parents, though aware of the ratings and of their meanings, do not take them seriously.”Most parents think their child is mature enough so that these games will not influence them,” said Jurgen Freund, chief executive with the Swiss research firm Modulum.According to the study of over 1,000 UK adults, parents were more concerned with the number of hours their children were playing video games than with what game they were playing.”Parents perceive age ratings as a guide but not as a definite prohibition,” said Freund. “Some may have not liked the content but they did not prohibit the game.”And while the debate is likely to continue on a large scale in years to come (California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger recently signed into law Assembly Bill 1179, which prohibits selling or renting violent video games to Californians under 18), one thing’s for sure — kids will continue to be drawn to them, if for no other reason than because they’re not supposed to have them.”We called it Magic 18,” said Freund. “The 18+ label was seen as promoting the content, promising adult content rather than saying ‘my parents will stop me playing this.’”

Thinking About Alpacas? Some Basic Questions and Answers | Livestock

Raising alpacas continues to gain popularity with all sorts of people. Some are attracted by the lifestyle of owning a small ranch. Others see alpacas as an investment opportunity (though we would claim it a business, not an investment!) Those with a particular fancy for spinning and knitting may be attracted by the idea of growing their own source of lovely fiber. Whatever the reason, the choice to raise alpacas is not a easy decision. We’ve put together a set of questions and answers that we hope you find useful.Q: What “breeds” and colors do alpacas come in?A: There are two varieties of alpaca: huacaya and suri. You can see pictures of each at our website (see the resource box below). Both varieties have very soft fleece, though they look very different.Huacayas are “fluffy” or “crimpy” and often “bouncy” to the touch. Suri fleece has straight fiber often with higher luster , that hangs down and tends to form “dreadlocks” . Both fiber types are popular in the textile industry, with cria fleeces generally bringing the highest price. Almost all the 130,000 or so alpacas in the United States are Huacaya. Only about 5% or so are Suri. You’ll find eight “basic colors” of fleece in alpacas: white, light, fawn, brown, grey, black, multi-color, and “indefinite”. What this really means is that there are a wide variety of colors out there, and some patterns, too. Pure white is very popular with the textile industry, since it can be dyed to almost any color.Q: Do alpacas spit?A: Oh yes. But not as often as you might think, and rarely at people. Spitting is both a defense and a way of communicating. Often, that communication is about who claims the food, or who wants to be “in charge” today.And…just so you know… spit in this case is NOT saliva. It’s genuine stomach juices, often including partially digested hay. It’s a lovely experience.Q: What kind of space do alpacas require?A: Alpacas have 3-chambered stomachs, so they are highly efficient grazers , more so than almost any other farm animal. Pasturing density of 6 to 7 alpacas per acre is often reasonable , though density varies greatly with condition of the land, climate, and quality of forage. Don’t forget that if you plan to keep breeding stock, you’ll need several fenced pastures to accommodate groups of different sexes, and to allow for pasture rotation. Fencing is required. The good news is that alpacas generally respect fencing. 4′ or 5′ no-climb horse fence is a cost-effective choice. If you don’t have the space for alpacas, consider boarding them at a ranch. Many alpaca owners begin this way.Q: Are alpacas loud? Will my neighbors complain?A: Though we can’t answer the second question (it depends on your neighbors!), the answer to the first is that alpacas are generally very quiet. They hum quietly , especially when a bit anxious. If they see something truly worrisome, they may sound a warbling call that some describe as a cross between a squeaky toy and a hawk’s cry.Most of the time, such a call means that they’ve seen a housecat out in the pasture…Q: We don’t plan to breed alpacas. Do they make good pasture pets?A: Definitely! Many people feel that the best alpacas for pasture pets are neutered males, often called “fiber boys”. Alpacas are a herd animal, so you’ll need at least 2, preferably 3. Alpacas are not like dogs. They are alert, curious, calm, and may very well come sniffing around when you’re working in the yard. However, they will most likely spend their time with the herd, not with their humans.Q: What do you do with alpaca fleece?A: Alpacas produce fiber that is, bar none, the finest in the world for spinning and weaving. Do you knit? Then you’re probably already aware of the exceptional qualities of alpaca yarn. Many small mills will take fleece, wash it, card it, and spin it, with several plying options. Knitting with yarn from animals you own is very rewarding! Do you spin? You can ask the mill to give you clean fleece or rovings. If fiber arts isn’t your thing, you can sell your fleece to mills, spinners, or even fiber cooperatives.Q: How big are alpacas, anyway?A: Alpacas are camelids, but small ones. Babies, called crias, generally weigh between 12 and 22 pounds at birth. Adults generally weigh between 120 and 210 pounds. A good-sized adult stands about 36″ at the shoulder, and can likely look you in the eye if you’re under 5’3″. This means they are much smaller and can feel less intimidating to some people than their bigger cousins, llamas (which are very nice, too – don’t get me wrong!). When you know how to handle them, alpacas are generally easy to work with, even though they may weigh more than you do.Q: How long do alpacas live? How much of that time are they actively reproductive?A: Alpacas generally live 17 to 22 years, and are usually very healthy for nearly all that time. We currently have a 14-year-old girl at our ranch who is expecting a cria this summer, and often leads the herd in running the perimeter of the pasture! Females may be ready to begin breeding by 18 months of age. Males mature a bit more slowly, and are generally ready to begin breeding at around 30 months.Q: How long are females pregnant, and how long is it after they give birth before they breed again?A: Gestation periods in alpacas range from a low of around 325 to a high of around 360 days, with the average at about 345 days. Single births are the rule. Alpacas are normally re-bred at about 3 weeks after delivery.Q: What are alpaca babies like?A: Very cute. Incredibly cute. Terminally, insanely cute. They are generally up on their feet within 30 minutes or so after birth, and actively nursing within an hour. Though a bit shaky on their legs for the first day, they are up and with the herd very quickly. Weight gain during the first two weeks may be about a pound each day. Aside from some basic post-natal precautions, and some vitamin and vaccine injections, crias generally need little special care. Crias nurse for 6 months, though, so Mom will need extra calories and protein for nursing.Q: What kind of care do alpacas require?A: A small herd of alpacas is quite easy to care for. Fresh water, good hay, a small daily grain supplement, and some mineral salt should do the trick for feeding. As natural foragers, alpacas will eat almost anything your pasture provides, including (thankfully) blackberry vines. However, some plants are poisonous to camelids. The bookshelf at our website has a reference to a good book on this subject, and you can find more information on line. For shelter, depending on your climate, alpacas need a simple 3-sided covered shelter or a barn. Alpacas are generally shorn once each year, often in early May here in the Pacific Northwest. For some before and after pictures, take a look at the news section of our website. Shearing is a job for a professional, but it is relatively easy to work with an established local ranch to get in on their shearing party. In warm weather, especially in southern climates , heat stress may become a concern. Special cooling arrangements may be required.Like other livestock, alpacas are susceptible to a variety of parasites, internal and external. Your vet will probably have a management plan that you can adopt. Alpaca hooves need regular trimming (every 3 to 6 months, your mileage may vary), but if your alpacas have been trained to know the “foot” command, trimming should not be a problem.Q: How do I take the next step?A: First, figure out your objectives. Breeding? Fiber farming? Pasture pets? Second, determine your timeline: how soon and in what order do you want to reach these objectives? Third, decide on your budget, and decide on whether you will have your own pastures, or will agist (board) your animals at a ranch. Fourth, take your time in finding the animals that will help you achieve your objectives. Don’t be in a rush. Take your time. Talk to people from several breeding farms.Want to know more? You might start by visiting our website. There you’ll find several resources to help you figure out the direction that’s right for you. We also invite you to contact us via the site, and if you’re not too far away, come visit our ranch! If we don’t have what you’re looking for, or we’re too far away to be practical, we may be able to suggest ranches in your area.Good luck!Copyright (c) 2009, Inti’s Gift Alpacas


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